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In the historical verifiable times, Gurgaon has been under the control of a succession of rulers appointed mostly by the ruling power in Delhi including Yaduvanshi Rajputs Mughals and Marathas in this order. By mid 19th century Gurgaon was part of the princely protectorate of Pataudi which is a part of Gurgaon district today. After India's independence, Gurgaon continued to be a part of the state of Punjab until 1966 when Haryana was formed a separate state. In the 1990s the Government of India reformed the tax laws, thus attracting private companies to build world-class buildings in Gurgaon.
Gurgaon is the hub of medical tourism in India namely because the city has the best of most modern healthcare facilities in terms of large corporate hospitals like Medanta Medicity, Alchemist Institute, Artemis Health Institute, Fortis Hospital, Paras Hospital, Max Hospital, Columbia Asia Hospital and The Park Hospital. Gurgaon also has district-level Civil Hospital and several dispensaries run by ESI, ECHS and in partnership with various NGOs as well as many private nursing homes. Several independent private practitioners, as well as chains of family practice clinics like Ross Clinics provide outpatient care to a large popoulation of the city.
Gurgaon has a large golfing population as the city has two 18-hole golf courses and three 9 hole golf courses. Gurgaon is also home to two sports stadiums—Tau Devi Lal Stadium which has facilities for basketball, cricket, football and athletics as well as a sports hostel, while Nehru Stadium has facilities for hockey and athletics. The Aravali Biodiversity Park on Gurgaon-Delhi border, accessed from MG Road was developed by the Municipal Corporation of Gurgaon.
A 8 lane expressway runs between Delhi and Gurgaon and connects to NH8 (Delhi-Jaipur-Mumbai national highway). The Gurgaon-Qutub minar section of Delhi Metro opened to public on 21 June 2010 and the line has been extended up to Central Secretariat which was ultimately merged with the existing Yellow line between Jahangirpuri and Central Secretariat. Also, a privately owned and operated Gurgaon Metro Rail Link has just opened to connect the Delhi Metro's Sikanderpur Station to NH-8, with 6 stations on a 6 km elevated link. It is a joint venture between DLF 7 IL&FS. The IGI Airport is just 15 kilometres from the city centre which is only 15 minutes car drive and the city is well connected to the airport by NH 8.
There are 3 Government Colleges: Dronacharya Govt. College, Govt. Girls College and Govt. College Sec. 9. Gurgaon is also home to one of India's top business schools like School of Inspired Leadership (SOIL) and Management Development Institute (MDI). Also located in Gurgaon is ITM University Apeejay College of Engineering, ICFAI Business School, Ansal Institute of Technology, Institute Of Business Management & Research, ILMS, Gurgaon Institute of Technology and Management, Institute of Apparel Management,IIPM & many more.
Haryana government's Favorable tax policy and pressure from Rajiv Gandhi to allow private companies to build properties and its proximity to Indira Gandhi International Airport saw the emergence of Gurgaon as one of the most prominent offshoring and outsourcing hubs in the world. A lot of Prominent MNC's headquartered here include Bharti Airtel SAP, KPMG, BCG, Nokia, Google, Motorola, Aricent, Ericsson, PwC, Deloitte, Ernst & Young, Hines ,McKinsey and Nestle. Delhi Mumbai Industrial Corridor Development Corporation Limited (DMICDC) is another pathbreaking project.
There are already over 80 malls in Gurgaon city. Notable amongst them are the Metropolitan Mall, Ambience Mall, Sahara Mall, , City Centre Mall and South Point Mall. there are also some very nice high street markets in Gurgaon like DLF Galleria, Crosspoint Market & Ninex City Mart on Sohna Road. There are also leisure parks, such as Leisure Valley Park and Kingdom of Dreams situated in Sector-29. Sultanpur Bird Sanctuary, Pataudi Palace, Damdama Lake are also some attractions apart from the upcoming amusement park Appu Ghar.
Gurgaon district comprises five blocks: Pataudi, Sohna, Gurgaon village Badshahpur & Farrukhnagar. On its south, the district shares boundaries with the Mewat District. On its north, it is bounded by the district of Jhajjar and Delhi. Faridabad district lies to its east. The length of the district is about 21 km and the breadth is 27 km. As per provisional data of 2011 census Gurgaon urban agglomeration had a population of 16,60,289, out of which males were 8,86,451 and females were 7,73,838. Also the literacy rate was 86.21%.